A.M. was born in Göynük. In his Ta’rih, as a part of his appointment records (tevcihat qaydı) of 6 Şevval 1163/8 September 1750, he mentions his own name as Göynüklü Ahmed Efendi. His date of birth is not known with any certainty. The year of his death is given as 1172/1759 in the Sicill and it is stated that he was over 100 years old when he died. The fact that A.M. lived a long life can be understood through his eyewitness account of the 1687 rebellion during the reign of Mehmed IV (r. 1058-1099/1648-1687) and his being mature enough at that time to provide a critique of the rebellion. We can surmise from this that he must have been born in the 1060s/1650s.
Although A.M. had a long life, current information on both his life and his work is very limited. Babinger gives a brief note about his work but provides no further information about his life. A. N. Kurat was the first modern historian to refer to A.M. and to use his work. In his article Kurat adjures that A.M. should occupy the respected place he deserves among Ottoman historians. Based on linguistic evidence, he also assumes that A.M., about whom little is known, could have been from Anatolia. The Romanian historian A. Tertecel later brought A.M.’s work to the attention of scholars and noted that A.M.’s account of the Prut Campaign (1711) is original and provides important information for Moldavian (Bogdan) history. More recently S. Çolak’s dissertation on A.M., Ta’rih-i Göynüklü (1999), presented his Ta’rih as an important source for 18th century Ottoman history. A 2004 article by E. Afyoncu aimed at shedding some light on the identity of A.M. on the basis of research in the appointment records of the Prime Ministry Archives. Kurat published 30 pages of A.M.’s history on the Prut Campaign in Arabic script along with a transliteration. The entire text of his Ta’rih is being edited by S. Çolak and A. Sağırlı.
The text of A.M.’s Ta’rih together with much additional information are compiled in a manuscript. Information about his life can be derived from the author’s notes in this compilation. According to these notes, A.M. was a scribe in the royal treasury (hazine-i birun katibi) when he began to write his compilation and his diary. While still in this office, he took part in the Prut Campaign against Russia (1123/1711) and he recorded the events that he witnessed on a daily basis. In 1127/1715, during the campaign against Austria, he was granted the office of clerk of the infantry (piyade muqabeleciligi) in addition to his position as scribe to the royal treasury. About a year later, on 10 Şevval 1128/18 September 1716, he was appointed head of suspended payments (mevqufatçı). He was dismissed shortly thereafter, on 11 Cemaziyülahir 1129/23 May 1717. According to a note in the compilation, on 13 Şevval 1132/18 August 1720 he was a scribe for the armourers (cebeciler katibi) and had earlier been a scribe for the sword-bearer regiments (silahdar katibi). Later on, on 8 Şevval 1134/22 July 1722, he was appointed secretary of the large fortresses (büyük qale tezkireciligi) and was dismissed about a year later, on 22 Şevval 1135/24 July 1723. Two years after this dismissal, on 12 Şevval 1137/24 June 1725, he again became clerk of the infantry. On 9 Şevval 1142/27 April 1730, he was appointed as scribe to the armourers for the third time. Shortly before the Patrona Halil rebellion, on 16 Muharrem 1143/1 August 1730, he was granted for the second time the offices of secretary of the large fortresses and agent for the clerk of finances (küçük ruznamçelik vekaleti). From a note in his Ta’rih dated 4 Rebiülahir 1143/17 October 1730 it is understood that A.M. became mevqufatçı for a second time. After this tenure, he became Clerk of Finances (küçük ruznamçeci) between 1 Zilhicce 1144/26 May 1732 and 1 Cemaziyülevvel 1145/20 October 1732. On 27 Muharrem 1149/7 June 1736, when the Ottoman army had gone to the Plain of Davud Paşa on campaign against Russia, A.M. was bookkeeper for the shipping office (qalyonlar defderdarı) and was exempted from attending the campaign. As holder of this office, he was responsible for registering 5000 irregulars armed with fire-arms (tüfenk-endaz levendat) to be sent to the Crimea. On 2 Rebiülahir 1153/27 June 1740, he was again appointed accountant for Anatolia (Anadolu muhasebecisi), but on 12 Şevval 1153/31 December 1740 he was dismissed from this office.
According to the Subhi Ta’rihi, on 17 Şevval 1155/17 December 1742, he was re-appointed as scribe of the armourers and stayed in this office until 7 Ramazan 1156/25 October 1743. A note in his Ta’rih states that he was the official in charge of granaries (anbar emini) during the storm which struck Istanbul on 14 Rebiülevvel 1162/3-4 March 1749, when several ships carrying provisions were damaged. On 12 Şevval 1158/7 November 1714, he was appointed assistant official to the provincial treasury (şıqq-ı sani defterdarı) and he occupied this position for 14 years, until his death. A.M, who lived for over 100 years, died in Şa’ban 1172/March-April 1759, and is buried in Üsküdar. The last note in his Ta’rih, dated 25 Receb 1172/24 March 1759, shows that he continued writing until his death.
An autograph copy is found in the Staatsbibliothek of Berlin under the reference Ms. or quart. 1209. The text is covered by a brown leather 20 x 30 cm. binding, the interior of which is decorated with flower motifs. The compilation consists of 372 folios. The text is written in a nesih, occasionally divani script. This compilation comprises, in addition to the Ta’rih, approximately 20 different entries including the Qanunnames of Aziz Efendi and Ayn Ali, ordinary puzzles, the sobriquets of Imperial Council (divan-ı hümayun) members, models for letter-writing and notes on botanical medicines. However, several folios were misplaced when the compilation was bound and four pages about the Prut Campaign are missing. At the beginning of the text there is a table of contents, but there is no real correspondence between the chapters and the table. A considerable part of the compilation after page 215b is dedicated to the Ta’rih, which includes his personal observations of events between 1123 and 1172 (1711-1759). Although A.M. does not give a title for this text, he occasionally uses the term “defter”. S. Çolak, in her dissertation, suggests the title Ta’rih-i Göynüklü.
The Ta’rih begins on 1 Muharrem 1123/19 February 1711, when the Ottoman army began its campaign against the Russian army, and ends in 25 Receb 1172/24 March 1759 with the festivities to celebrate the birth of Mustafa III’s (r. 1757-1774) daughter. A.M. tried to record events which he personally witnessed chronologically, on a daily basis. Although in the beginning of the text the author was careful in doing this, after his description of the Austria Campaign (1128/1726) from about fol. 295 onwards he does not take care to continue his day-by-day narrative. Towards the end of the text one year is narrated in a few brief notes, and this section consists mostly of notes on appointments. The author’s name is not given in the beginning, but one can establish from reading the notes that the copy was written by the author himself.
A.M. describes the events that he witnessed or that were related to him in a simple, clear language. He does not elaborate on the causes of events, but he occasionally expresses his opinions and criticisms, as in the case of the Patrona Halil uprising (1143/1730) and the assassination of Damad İbrahim Paşa (18 Rebiülevvel 1143/1 October 1730).
The topics covered in the Ta’rih are in general as follows: between folios 215b-242a, the Ottoman-Russia war is narrated. This section begins with the movement of Ottoman troops to the Plain of Davud Paşa. The military camp sites and the length of time spent at each one, the time distance between camps and their physical descriptions, and the battlefield in Novi Stanilişçe (?) (Kekeç Ağzı) are all described in detail. The battle is also depicted on a colored map. Folios 243b-269a are on the Campaign of the Morea (1127/1715). 243b begins with a letter explaining the reasons for the campaign which was sent to judges (qadi), stewards (kethuda) and local notables (ayan) and to the imperial cavalry (qapıqulu süvari bölükleri). A.M. joined the army on the campaign which began in Rebiülevvel 1127/March 1715, and he describes about 58 military camp sites up to the fortress of Methone (Modon). This chapter includes descriptions of the conquests of strongholds in Korinthos (Gördös), Navplion (Anapoli), Methone, Levkas (Ayamavra) and ends, with the return of the army to Burgas (Lüleburgaz) on 29 Zilka’de 1127/26 November 1715, on page 269a. On page 270a, the Austria Campaign of 1128/1716 begins. A.M. took part in the campaign. From Rebiülevvel 1128/February 1716 onwards he records the camp sites, the correspondence between the two states, and appointments and dismissals. In this chapter, A.M. occasionally expresses his personal opinions and criticisms. The last note in this chapter on 295a is on the arrival of the Ottoman army in Istanbul on 25 Zilka’de 1130/21 October 1718. After the campaign A.M. remained in Istanbul and continued to record his observations. On page 296a, he tells about the preparations carried out for the festivities (sur-ı hümayun şenlikleri) surrounding the imperial circumcision on 1 Şevval 1132/6 August 1720, and he gives a detailed account of their expenses. The weddings of both Zeyneb Sultan and Mustafa Paşa and of Hasibe Sultan and Silahdar Mehmed Paşa (15 Rebiülahir 1141/18 October 1728), and also the wedding of Esma Sultan (4 Muharrem 1156/28 February 1743), are also described. A.M., who stayed in Istanbul, followed and recorded the negotiations with Iran until 21 Cemaziyülevvel 1149/27 September 1736. This chapter begins on page 301a with 3 Cemaziyülevvel 1135/9 February 1723 deliberations concerning the letters of Silahdar İbrahim Paşa, the Governor (vali) of Erzurum, stating that Tebriz, Tbilisi (Tiflis) and Yerevan (Revan) had expressed their wish to accept Ottoman rule, and it continues with an account of the Ottoman-Iranian treaty dated 21 Cemaziyülevvel 1149/27 September 1736 (333b).
A.M. also notes fires, earthquakes and extraordinary incidents occuring at that time in Istanbul. From 322a, he gives accounts of the Patrona Halil uprising (15 Rebiülevvel 1143/28 September 1730), of the activities of the rebels in Istanbul, and of the dethronement of Ahmed III (r. 1114-1143/1703-1730). On pages 354b-358b, he gives a list of botanical medicines as cures for various diseases.
The only complete copy known of A.M.’s work is the Berlin copy mentioned above. In a 1986 article, Şevket Rado mentions the presence in his library of an approximately 30 pages-long copy, covering only the Prut Campaign. This copy begins in Muharrem 1123/February 1711 and ends in Receb 1126/July-August 1714, with the return of the King of Sweden Karl XII to his homeland. According to Rado, the copy was written in 1205/1790, as it is stated on the last page of the text. The Rado library is not open to researchers at the present time.
Contents: This classification is taken from the Berlin Ms. or. quart 1209.
216b: Sefer-i hümayun. 1 Muharrem 1123. 243b: Mora ceziresine sefer-i hümayun. 1126. 270a: Sefer-i hümayun an canib-i Nemçe. 1128. 295b: Der beyan-ı elçi-i Nemçe. 296a: Sur-i hümayun içün etraf ve eknafa tenbih olunub, piş-keşler içün defterleri verildi. 1 Şevval 1132. 300b: Müşavere der bab-ı hazret-i sadr-ı ali der huzur-ı sadr-ı ali. 6 Muharrem 1135. 300b: Fasl-ı müşavere der bab-ı hazret-i vezir-i azam der huzur-ı hazret-i sadr-ı ali. 13 Safer 1135. 301a: Tebdilat-ı hvacegan-ı baz. 17 Rebiülevvel 1135. 301a: Müşavere der bab-ı saray-ı hazret-i sadr-ı ali der huzur-ı sadr-ı ali. 3 Cemaziyülevvel 1135. 302a: Tebdilat-ı hvacegan-ı divan-i hümayun. 22 Şevval 1135. 314b: Devlet-i aliyyeden İsfahan hakimi Eşref Hana gidecek elçidir. 315a: Aqd-i nikah. 15 Rebiülahir 1141. 316b: Tevcihat. 17 Şevval 1141. 317a: Elçi-i Raşid Paşa amed. 26 Zilkade 1141. 317b: Kebir ihraq. Muharrem 1142. 318a: Sadabad, ziyafet, tertib-i alay. 23 Muharrem 1142. 318b: Meşveret der bab-ı hazret-i sadr-ı ali ve huzur-ı hümayun. 4 Şevval 1142. 319b: Tevcihat-ı hvacegan-ı aqlam tebdila[t] ve muqarrer ve ocag-ı agayan ve sa’ire. 16 Şevval 1142. 319b: Elçi-i Qızılbaş. Pazar, 2 Zilhicce 1142. 320a: Der beyan-ı meşveret ve mükaleme-i elçi-i Şah-ı Acem. 320a: Meşveret der bab-ı sadr-ı ali. 24 Zilkade 1142. 320b: İhrac-ı mevacib. 9 Muharrem sene 1143. 321a: Huruc-ı Şah-ı Tahmasp. 321a: Eşref Hana imdad. 321a: Firar-ı Eşref Han. 321b: İhrac-ı ehl-i İslam [ez] qale-i Hamadan [ve] duhul-i Qızılbaş. 321b: İhrac-ı ehl-i İslam [ez] qaza-i Kirman şahan [ve] duhul-i Qızılbaş. 321b: Elçi-i Şah Tahmasp Qulu. 322b: Haze-l-vaqa [Padişah ve şehzadelerin Üsküdar’dan Istanbul’a geçişi]. 323a: Qatl-i İbrahim Paşa ve Qapudan Mustafa Paşa ve Mehmed Kethuda. 323a: Cülus-i hümayun [Mahmud I]. 324a: Aqlam-ı hazineden verilen icmaller mucibince verilecek atiyye-i hümayunun defteridir. 27 Rebiülevvel 1143. 325b: Zorbalar. 17 Ramazan 1143. 326b: Defa-i salis-i eşqiya. 29 Safer. 327b: Suret-i mektub-ı Serasker Ahmed Paşa ba-canib-i şarq. 328b: Tahlis-i Bagdad. 330b: İhraqlar. 9 Rebiülahir 1148. 331a: Mosqov Çasarı naqz-i ahd edüb. 331b: Fevt-i Sultan Ahmed. 341b: ﬂZiyafet-i sadr-ı ali elçi-i Nemçe der Sadabad. 7 Receb 1153. 342a: Tevcihat der huzur-ı sadr-ı ali. 12 Şevval 1153. 342b: Tevcihat-ı ocag-ı agayan. 13 Şevval 1153. 343a: Der mahall-i elçi-i Tahmasp Qulu Şah. 23 Zi’l-Hicce 1153. 344b: Acem elçisi hazret-i vezir-i azam hazretlerine geldi. 12 Muharrem 1154. 345a: Mosqov elçisi dahi gelüb. 19 Muharrem 1154. 346b: Der ziyafet-i elçi-i Mosqov. 28 Cemaziyülevvel 1154. 346b: Sulh-ı Mosqov. 347b: Meşveret der bab-ı sadr-ı ali. 8 Safer 1155. 349a: Meşveret-i mahfi der bab-ı hazret-i sadr-ı ali. 3 Receb 1155. 351a: Azl-i Ali Paşa. 4 Şaban 1156. 351b: Tevcihat-ı erbab-ı münasib. 351b: Haber-i meserret, inhizam-ı Şah-ı Acem Nadir Şah. 351b: Haber-i meserret. [Musul seraskeri Hüseyin Paşa’dan gelen ve Nadir Şah’ın Sencan’da Yezid Kürtlerine yenilmesi hakkında]. 8 Şevval 1156. 352a: Tebdilat ve tevcihat. 16 Şaban 1158. 352b: Tevcihat-ı baz-ı rical. 7 Cemaziyülahir 1159. 353a: Gün-i şemsin tutulması. 353a: Suret-i husuf. 353b: Tevcihat-ı hazret-i sadr-ı ali der bab-ı saray-ı sadr-ı ali. 10 Şevval 1161. 353b: Habsü’l-bevl içün ilac budur. 20 Rebiülevvel 1165. 358b: Cehaz-ı Zübeyde Sultan bintü’l-Gazi Sultan. 359b: Avdet-i donanma-i hümayun. 360a: Suret-i qamer ve suret-i şems. 360b: İhraq-ı kebir. 360b: İhraq-ı hane-i şeyhü’l-islam efendi der qarib-i Bahçe Qapusu. 14 Rebiülevvel 1163. 361a: Azl-i yeniçeri agası 24 Cemaziyülevvel 1163. 361a: Tevcihat-ı qaziasker-i Rumeli. 12 Cemaziyyelahir 1163. 361a: Tevcihat-ı emin-i Tersane-i amire. 17 Cemaziyyelahir 1163. 361a: Tevcihat-ı şeyhü’l-islam efendi. 27 Cemaziyyelahir 1163. 361a: Baz-ı tevcihat ve tebdilat. 24 Şaban 1163. 361a: Tevcihat-ı erbab-ı mansub der huzur-ı sadr-ı ali. 6 Şevval 1163. 361b: Be-avdet-i donanma dahil-i Asitane ve ma hazine-i Mısr-ı Qahire dahil-i Asitane. 362a: Elçi-i Dubrovnik [cizye teslimi için gelişi], 15 Muharrem 1164. Baz-ı ricale dahi hilat-i fahire der huzur-ı hümayun. 362a: Qar zuhuru. 23 Muharrem 1164. 362a: Baz-ı tevcihat der bab-ı sadr-ı ali huzur-ı sadr-ı ali. 20 Safer sene 1164. 362a: Defa-i tevcihat-ı kethüda beg hazret-i sadr-ı ali defterdar efendi. 362b: İhraq-ı kebir der Asitane-i saadet fi 9 Temmuz/fi 7 Şaban sene 1164. 362b: Qar yagdı. 362b: İhrac-ı donanma-i hümayun. 16 Cemaziyyelahir 1165. 363a: İhraq-ı kebir Gedik Paşa qurbunda Sabuncılar hanında. 363a: Hacc-ı şerif[-i] sadr-ı azam hazretlerinin validesi. 363a: Zelzele-i azim. 363a: Vefat-ı Sultan Ayşe Sultan. 17 Zilkade 1165. 363b: Tevcihat-ı kethüda beg hazret[-i] sadr-ı ali. 10 Muharrem 1166. 363b: İhrac-ı mevacib. 21 Muharrem 1166. 363b: Tersane-i amirenin donanma-i hümayun qalyonları geldi. 8 Safer 1166. 364a: Davet-i mevlud-i şerif; suret-i ferman-ı ali. 13 Rebiülevvel 1166. 364a: Tevcihat-ı Mısr-ı Qahire. 1 Cemaziyülevvel 1166. 364a: İhrac-ı mevacib. 1165. 364b: İhrac-ı donanma-i hümayun [ez] Tersane-i amire. 22 Cemaziyyelahir 1166. 364b: Hariq. 1 Receb 1166. 364b: Defa-i hariq. 20 Receb 1166. 364b: Defa-i hariq. 24 Receb 1166. 364b: Azl-i baş baqı qulu agası. 4 Şaban 1166. 365a: İhrac-ı mevacib. 17 Şaban 1166. 365a: İmsakiyye. 1 Ramazan 1166. 365a: Dolu zuhuru. 365a: Ramazan-ı şerifatın gurresi. 1166. 365a: Tevcihat-ı erbab-ı menasıb. 10 Şevval . 365b: Tevcihat. 1 Muharrem 1167. 365b: Qıra’at-ı mevlud-i şerif. 12 Rebiülevvel 1167. 366a: İhraq-ı kebir. 15 Cemaziyülevvel . 366 b: Ba-hatt-ı hümayun. 5 Şaban 1167. 366b: Tevcihat-ı erbab-ı münasib. 7 Şevval 1167. 366b: Azl-i kethüda beg ve Rumeli payesiyle iki tug. 367a: İhraq-ı kebir. 11 Teşrin-i evvel 1167. 367a: İntiqal-i Sultan Mahmud Han, cülus-ı Sultan Osman Han. 367b: Suret-i ferman ki sadr-ı azam Ali Paşa hazretleri mühre geldügi davetdir. 367b: Suret-i ferman ba-tezkire-i kethüda beg. 12 Cemaziyyelahir 1168. 367b: İhraq-ı eyvan-ı Sarı qale(?). 367b: Azl-i vezir-i azam Ali Paşa hazretleri. 368a: Vefat-ı Valide Sultan bint-i hazret-i Sultan Osman Han. 26 [Safer] 1169. 368b: İhraq-ı kebir an tafsil an hatt-ı hümayun ve ba-ferman-ı ali ve tahrir-i qadi-i Istanbul. 1169. 368b: Azl-i vezir-i azam Mustafa Paşa. 369 a: Tevcihat der vüzera (?) üç tug kethüda beg Ahmed Paşa. 15 Rebiülahir 1169. 369b: Defa-i ihraq. 27 Cemaziyülevvel 1169. 369b: Azl-i vezir-i azam Said Paşa. 1 Receb 1169. 370a: Vezaret-i Ragib Mehmed Paşa mühr-i şerif verildigi ta’rihdir. 370a: İhrac-ı donanma-i hümayun. 3 Şaban 1170. 370a: Tevcihat-ı kethüda-i sadr-ı ali. 21 Cemaziyülevvel 1170. 370a: Müteveffa vezir kethüdası Derviş Mehmed Aga. 3 Zilhicce 1170. 370a: Nasb-ı kethüdalıq. 3 Zilhicce 1170. 370b: Tevcihat. 3 Muharrem 1171. 370b: Müteveffa Sultan Osman b. Sultan el-Gazi Mustafa Han. 15 Safer 1171. 370b: Qıra’at-ı hatt-ı hümayun der bab-ı saray-ı sadr-ı ali. 17 Safer 1171. 370b: Meşveret der huzur-ı hümayun. 15 Rebiülevvel 1171. 370b: Tevcihat. 27 Rebiülevvel 1171. 371a: Aqdü’l-nikah-ı vezir-i azam Ragıb Mehmed Paşa, [be-]Saliha Sultan bint-i Sultan Han. 27 Receb 1171. 371a: Teşrif-i Saliha Sultan. 5 Şaban/2 Nisan 1171. 371b: Tevcihat-ı erbab-ı menasıb, hazret-i sadr-ı ali huzurunda hilat-ı fahire ilbas. 3 Ramazan 1171. 371b: İhraq-ı kebir. 21 Zilkade 1171. 371b: Dünyaya gelen sultan ta’rihidir. 14 Receb 1172.
Manuscripts (1) Berlin, Staatsbibliothek Orientabteilung, Ms. or. quart. 1209. ff. 371, 29-37 lin. nesih and occasionally divani script. (Barbara Flemming, Verzeichnis der orientalischen Handschriften in Deutschland, Türkische Handschriften Teil I, vol. XIII (Wiesbaden, 1968), 28 (no. 41), 151-152 (no. 191), 153-154 (no. 193), 186-187 (no. 227), 203 (no. 247), 256-257 (no. 321), 259-260 (no. 326), 271 (no. 341), 272 (no. 342), 275 (no. 348-349), no. 276 (no. 350), no. 319 (no. 416), no. 334-335 (no. 428), 338 (no. 433), 346-347 (no. 446). (2) Istanbul, Şevket Rado Kütüphanesi.
Secondary Sources: Mehmed Süreyya, Sicill-i Osmani, vol. 1 (Istanbul, 1308/ 1890-1891), 256. Sami ve Şakir ve Subhi, Sami ve Şakir ve Subhi Ta’rihi, (Istanbul, 1198/1783-84), 214b. Franz Babinger, Die Geschichtsschreiber der Osmanen und ihre Werke (Leibzig, 1927), 313. Akdes Nimet Kurat, “İsveç Kralı XII. Karl’ın Türkiye’de kaldığı zamana ait metinler ve vesikalar”, AÜDTCF Tarih Araştırmaları Dergisi, no. 5/1, Ekler I, (1943), V-VII. İdem., Prut Seferi ve Barışı 1123 (1711), (Ankara, 1951). Idem., “Hazine-i Birûn Kâtibi Ahmed bin Mahmud’un (1123-1711) Prut Seferine ait Defteri”, AÜDTCF Tarih Araştırmaları Dergisi, vol IV/6-7 (1966), 261-427. Adrian Tertecel, “Un Izvor Otoman Necunoscut Istoriografie Noastre: Jurnalul” (Defter) lui Ahmed bin Mahmud (secretar al vistieriei otomane) privind campania militara a Inaltei Porti din anul 1711 în Moldova”, Universitatea Bucureşti Facultatea de istorie Caietele Laboratorului de studii Otomane, no. 2 (Bucureşti, 1995), 55-133. Şevket Rado, “Hazine-yi birûn kâtibi Ahmed bin Mahmud Efendi’nin tuttuğu Prut seferine ait defterden koparılan sahifelerde neler vardı?”, Belleten, vol. L/198 (Ankara, 1986), 807-824. Songül Çolak, Die Bedeutung des Geschichtsschreibers Ahmed b. Mahmud und seines Werkes Târih-i Göynüklü als Quelle für die Geschichte des Osmanischen Reiches im 18. Jahrhundert (Berlin, 1999). Songül Çolak, “XVIII. Yüzyıl Osmanlı Tarih Yazıcılarından Hazine-yi Birûn Kâtibi Ahmed bin Mahmûd’un Hayatı”, Belleten, vol. LXVII/250 (December, 2003): 853-865. Erhan Afyoncu, “Hazine-i Birûn Kâtibi Ahmed bin Mahmud Kimdir?,” Journal of Turkish Studies, vol. 28/1 (2004): 1-8.